Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
In Indonesia, the usage of cooling – such as refrigeration and air-conditioning (RAC) - increases by 15 % per year in the industrial, commercial, and private sector. Hereby, inefficient appliances with outdated technology are commonly used. These are not only energy inefficient, but mostly run on F-gas refrigerants which harm the climate and ozone layer through leakages from devices.
It is estimated that in Indonesia, energy consumption from refrigeration and air-conditioning in commerce and industry can be reduced by 15 – 30 % through the implementation of modern technology. Moreover, direct emissions from devices through leakage of refrigerants account to approximately 2-3 m t CO2e per year.
Energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions from the RAC-Sector are hardly considered at the planning level, although modern technology with low energy consumption and natural, climate- and ozone-neutral refrigerants is readily available.
These green technologies are neglected for several reasons: There is a lack of technical expertise and knowledge about green cooling, furthermore, there are no local manufacturers and only little demand for these products. At the same time, the implementation of green-cooling technology bears opportunities to further support energy security, decouple emissions from economic growth and thereby supporting Indonesia’s ambitious emission reduction targets.
What are Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)?
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) describe policies and actions which developing countries implement to mitigate GHG emissions. This concept is embedded in the UNFCCC and acknowledges that different countries may take different mitigation actions based on their respective responsibilities and capabilities. Hereby, NAMAs provide a new opportunity for developing countries to take action on their large and rapidly increasing GHG emissions, while managing their economic growth, social, and development needs. NAMAs should take up ongoing or planned sectoral mitigation activities such as development of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE), sustainable forest management, improved transportation systems, and support them by means of national and international sources, thereby facilitating their implementation at an ambitious level.
Figure: Indonesia’s emission reduction target
At the G-20 meeting in Pittsburgh and at UNFCCC COP15 in Copenhagen in 2009, the President of the Republic of Indonesia committed to achieve the target of 26% reduction in carbon emissions from a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario by 2020. Further emissions reductions of up to 41% are expected to be implemented with international support. These commitments were submitted as Indonesia’s nationally appropriate mitigation actions to the UNFCCC in January 2010.This step is coherent with Indonesia’s continued efforts to implement its target under the UNFCCC and contributes to global mitigation efforts in accordance with the principles and provision of the Convention. Furthermore, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) has developed a national policy framework and action plan on climate change. To advance and promote the efforts nationally, the Government of Indonesia enacted the Presidential Regulation No. 61 – the National Action Plan for GHG emission reduction (Rencana Aksi Nasional Penurunan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca, henceforth RAN-GRK) on 20 September 2011. RAN-GRK therefore forms the regulatory framework for the development and implementation of NAMAs.
Source: Indonesian NAMA framework report 2013